Resources and Bibliography

Resources &
Bibliography

Resources: Center for the History of Medicine, Countway Library

Center for the History of Medicine. https://countway.harvard.edu/center-history-medicine.

Archives for Diversity and Inclusion. https://countway.harvard.edu/center-history-medicine/collections-research-access/awm.

OnView: Digital Collections & Exhibits. http://collections.countway.harvard.edu/onview/index.php.

Coup, Elizabeth. “Processing of the Harold Amos Papers Underway.” Center for the History of Medicine News. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://cms.www.countway.harvard.edu/wp/?p=12742.

Eckert, Jack. “Broad Foundation.” OnView: Digital Collections & Exhibits. Center for the History of Medicine. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://collections.countway.harvard.edu/onview/exhibits/show/broad-foundation.

Eckert, Jack. “‘This Abominable Traffic’: Physicians on Slavery.” OnView: Digital Collections & Exhibits. Center for the History of Medicine. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://collections.countway.harvard.edu/onview/exhibits/show/this-abominable-traffic.

Ilacqua, Joan. “A Brief History of Women at Harvard Medical School.” OnView: Digital Collections & Exhibits. Center for the History of Medicine. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://collections.countway.harvard.edu/onview/exhibits/show/women.

Murphy, Jessica. “Grete L. Bibring: The Modern Woman.” OnView: Digital Collections & Exhibits. Center for the History of Medicine. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://collections.countway.harvard.edu/onview/exhibits/show/grete-bibring-the-modern-woman.

 

Resources: The Office for Diversity Inclusion and Community Partnership

The Office for Diversity Inclusion and Community Partnership. https://mfdp.med.harvard.edu/.

Diversity Task Force. Harvard Medical School. https://hms.harvard.edu/about-hms/campus-culture/diversity-task-force.

 

Bibliography

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“About Dr. David Satcher.” University of Rochester Medical Center. Accessed July 22, 2020.  https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/community-health/news-events/satcher-improvement-awards/david-satcher.aspx

“About HDA – HDA Service, Leadership, and Advocacy for Hispanic Oral Health.” Hispanic Dental Association. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://hdassoc.org/about-us/.

“About NDA – NDA.” National Dental Association. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://ndaonline.org/about-nda/.

“African Americans and the End of Slavery in Massachusetts.” Massachusetts Historical Society. Accessed October 11, 2019. http://www.masshist.org/endofslavery/index.php?id=61.

“Against all odds: Students of African descent at HMS before affirmative action.” The Harvard Gazette, November 18, 2004. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2004/11/against-all-odds/.

Agbor, Phylisha W. “Ida Gray Nelson Rollins (1867-1953).” BlackPast, November 22, 2013. https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/rollins-ida-gray-nelson-1867-1953/.

Bailey, Melissa. “Harvard Medical School students decry lack of diversity.” STAT, February 8, 2016. https://www.statnews.com/2016/02/08/harvard-medical-school-diversity/.

Baker, Robert B., et. al. “African American Physicians and Organized Medicine 1846-1968: Origins of a Racial Divide.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 300 no. 3 (2008): 306-313. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/182255.

Barr, Paul. “Health Care Hall of Fame: Dr. Louis Sullivan.” Modern Health.  Accessed July 26, 2020. https://www.modernhealthcare.com/awards/2019-health-care-hall-fame-dr-louis-sullivan

“Bernard Davis and Minority Students At the Med School.” The Harvard Crimson, May 19, 1976. https://www.thecrimson.com/article/1976/5/19/bernard-davis-and-minority-students-at.

"Biographical material submitted by Dr. Prothrow-Stith prior to her delivery of the Howard Dorsey Still Lecture at HMS in 2018." 

Blue Spruce, George. Searching for My Destiny. University of Nebraska Press: 2012.

“Boston Before Busing, 1964-1974,” Boston: Northeastern University Libraries, 2015. http://dsgsites.neu.edu/desegregation.

“Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1).” Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483.

Buckley, M.R.F. “Making History: Dr. Alvin Poussaint reflects on a lifetime of achievement.” Harvard Medical School News. May 16, 2019. https://hms.harvard.edu/news/making-history-0.

Buckley, M.R.F. “Portrait of a Pioneer: 60 years after his death, groundbreaking bacteriologist Hinton honored at HMS.” Harvard Medical School News. September 13, 2019. https://hms.harvard.edu/news/portrait-pioneer.

Butler, Gerry. “Martin Robison Delany (1812-1885).” BlackPast, March 3, 2007. https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/delany-major-martin-robison-1812-1885/.

“Changing the Face of America.” US.Gov.  Accessed July 20, 2020.  https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_73.html

“Charles A. Eastman, Ohiyesa (The Winner).” Akta Lakota Museum Cultural Center and St. Joseph’s Indian School. Accessed June 18, 2020.http://aktalakota.stjo.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=8884

"Charles Eastman, MD.” Boston University School of Medicine Historical Society. Accessed June 17, 2020.http://blogs.bu.edu/busmhs/campus-history/charles-eastman-md/

Civil Rights Digital Library. Accessed October 11, 2019. http://crdl.usg.edu.

“Civil Rights Movement Veterans.” Civil Rights Movement Veterans - CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.crmvet.org/.

Crumpler, Rebecca Lee. A Book of Medical Discourses in Two Parts. Boston: Cashman, Keating, & Co., 1883. https://archive.org/details/67521160R.nlm.nih.gov/page/n3.

“David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D. Founding Director.” Morehouse School of Medicine. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.msm.edu/about_us/FacultyDirectory/CommunityHealthPreventiveMedicine/DavidSatcher/index.php

“Dean’s Task Force on Diversity and Inclusion.” Harvard Medical School. Accessed 5 February 2018. https://hms.harvard.edu/about-hms/campus-culture/deans-task-force-diversity-and-inclusion.

Dittmer, John. “The Good Doctors: The Medical Committee for Human Rights and the Struggle for Social Justice in Health Care.” New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press, 2009. 336 pp. As seen in Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, Volume 21, Number 3, August 2010. Accessed May 20, 2020. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/389058

Dittmer, John, PhD. “The Medical Committee for Human Rights.” AMA Journal of Ethics, Illuminating the Art of Medicine. Accessed May 20, 2020. https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/medical-committee-human-rights/2014-09

“Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Facts & Figures 2014.” Association of American Medical Colleges, 2014. http://aamcdiversityfactsandfigures.org/.

“Document for July 26th: Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces.” National Archives. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=726.

“Dr. Antonia Coello Novello, MD, MPH, DrPH.” EnVision Summit. 2019-2020. https://www.envisionsummit.org/novello

“Dr. Antonia Novello.” Changing the face of America. USA.GOV. June 3, 2015. https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_239.html

“Dr. Augustus A. White, III.” The History Makers. https://www.thehistorymakers.org/biography/dr-augustus-white-iii.

“Dr. Charles A. Eastman Ohiyesa (The Winner).” Dr. Charles A. Eastman. Akta Lakota Museum & Cultural Center. Accessed October 11, 2019. http://aktalakota.stjo.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=8884.

“Dr. Clifton Dummett, Leader in Academic Medicine and Dental Education, Passes Away.” Bulletin of Dental Education. American Dental Education Association. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.adea.org/BDEBlog.aspx?id=20607&blogid=27619.

“Dr. Deborah Prothrow Stith.” Changing the face of Medicine. USA.Gov. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_257.html

“Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell.” Changing the Face of Medicine. National Library of Medicine. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_35.html.

“Dr. JudyAnn Bigby.” Changing the face of Medicine. USA.Gov. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_34.html

“Dr. M. Joycelyn Elders.” Changing the Face of Medicine. USA.Gov. June 3, 2015. https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_98.html

“Dr. Susan La Flesche American Masters Video.”Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs. June 17, 2020. Accessed June 18, 2020.http://indianaffairs.state.ne.us/dr-susan-la-flesche/

“Dr. Susan La Flesche Picotte.” Bibliography. Changing the Face of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. October 14, 2003. Accessed June 18, 2020.https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_253.html

“Dred Scott v. Sandford.” Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/60us393.

Ducharme, Jamie. “100 Women of the Year: World; 1994: Joycelyn Elders.” Time. March 5, 2020. https://time.com/5793727/joycelyn-elders-100-women-of-the-year/

Ducharme, Jamie. “Harvard Medical Students Are Demanding More Diversity on Campus.” Boston Magazine, February 2, 2016. http://www.bostonmagazine.com/health/2016/02/02/diversity-harvard-medical-school/.

Dummett, Clifton O. “National Museum of Dentistry Exhibition: The  Future is Now! African Americans in Dentistry.” Journal of the National Medical Association 95, no. 9 (September 2003):879-883. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2594473/.

Dummett, Clifton O. “Salute to Harvard School of Dental Medicine.” Journal of the Massachusetts Dental Society, 52, no. 2 (2003):28-32.

Dunne, Kerry. Busing & Beyond: School Desegregation in Boston. DPLA. https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/busing-beyond-school-desegregation-in-boston.

“Emancipation Proclamation (1863).” OurDocuments.gov. Accessed June 16, 2020.
https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=34

“Emancipation Proclamation.” History.com; January 6, 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020.
https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/emancipation-proclamation

“Facts & Figures | HMS.” Harvard Medical School. Accessed 5 February 2018.
https://hms.harvard.edu/about-hms/facts-figures.

“Faculty Development & Diversity Annual Report 2016-2017.” Harvard University, Office of the Senior Vice Provost. 
http://faculty.harvard.edu/files/fdd/files/2016-17_fdd_annual_report_for_web.pdf.

“THE FAMILY VAN.” Accessed 5 February 2018. http://www.familyvan.org/.

“First American Indian Doctor.” Unladylike 2020, American Masters, PBS. June 16, 2020. Accessed June 17, 2020.http://www.pbs.org/americanmasters

“Fisher v. University of Texas. |LS|1|RS|” Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.oyez.org/cases/2012/11-345.

“Fisher v. University of Texas. |LS|2|RS|” Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.oyez.org/cases/2015/14-981.

Flaherty, Julie. “They Said Her Admittance Was a Mistake. And Yet, She Persisted.” Tufts Now. February 4, 2020.
https://now.tufts.edu/articles/they-said-her-admittance-was-mistake-and-yet-she-persisted

Fletcher, William. “Don Bowen: Bridging the Gap Between Two Nations.” Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin 59, no. 3 (Fall 1985): 40-42.
https://archive.org/details/harvardmedical59harv/page/40.

Flexner, Abraham. Medical Education in the United States and Canada. The Carnegie Foundation, 1910.
http://archive.carnegiefoundation.org/pdfs/elibrary/Carnegie_Flexner_Report.pdf

“From Texas; Important Orders by General Granger. Surrender of Senator Johnson of Arkansas. A Soattering of Rebel Officials.” The New York Times, July 7, 1865.https://www.nytimes.com/1865/07/07/archives/from-texas-important-orders-by-general-granger-surrender-of-senator.html

Garner, Carla, contributor. “Louis Wade Sullivan.” BlackPast. September 26, 2009. https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/sullivan-louis-wade-1933/

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. “What Is Juneteenth?” PBS, WGBH; The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross; 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro.https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/what-is-juneteenth/

“Gift Kicks Off the Freeman, Grant, Franklin Scholarship.” HSDM News, October 28, 2016. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://hsdm.harvard.edu/news/gift-kicks-freeman-grant-franklin-scholarship.

Golden, Janet, PhD. “Civil Rights Movement’s Often Overlooked Impact on Health Care.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. August 27, 2013. Accessed May 20, 2020. 
https://www.inquirer.com/philly/blogs/public_health/Civil-Rights-movements-often-overlooked-impact-on-health-care.html

“Grutter v. Bollinger.” Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.oyez.org/cases/2002/02-241.

“Harvard School of Dental Medicine 150th Anniversary.” Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://150.hsdm.harvard.edu/.

“Harvard SMNA.” Accessed 5 February 2018. https://snma.hms.harvard.edu/.

Hayden, Robert C. African-Americans in Boston: More than 350 Years. Boston: Trustees of the Boston Public Library, 1992. https://archive.org/details/africanamericans00hayd_0/page/n11.

“The history of African Americans and Organized Medicine.” American Medical Association. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.ama-assn.org/about/ama-history/history-african-americans-and-organized-medicine.

“History of Women at HMS.” Joint Committee on the Status of Women. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://jcsw.hms.harvard.edu/history.

“History – National Medical Association.” National Medical Association. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.nmanet.org/page/History.

Hurst, Ryan. “Mary Eliza Mahoney (1845-1926).” BlackPast, March 28, 2009. https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/mahoney-mary-eliza-1845-1926/.

“Jeanne C. Sinkfod | Celebrating Howard’s 150 Years.” Howard University. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://150.howard.edu/facts/jeanne-c-sinkford.

“Jessica Rickert.” Michigan Women’s Hall of Fame. Accessed October 11, 2019. http://www.michiganwomenshalloffame.org/Images/Rickert,%20Jessica.pdf.

“Jim Crow Laws.” Freedom Riders. WGBH. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/freedom-riders-jim-crow-laws/.

“Joseph L. Henry.” Memorial Minute. The Faculty of Medicine Harvard Medical School. https://fa.hms.harvard.edu/files/memorialminute_henry_joseph_l.pdf.

“Judy Bigby.” South Africa Partners. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.sapartners.org/about-us/our-team/judy-bigby

Kendrick, Stephen, and Paul Kendrick. Sarah’s Long Walk: The Free Blacks of Boston and How Their Struggle for Equality Changed America. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004.

King, Elizabeth Neber. “Women in Dentistry.” Washington University Dental Journal, 1945. http://beckerexhibits.wustl.edu/mowihsp/health/womenindentistry.htm.

Kurilla, Michelle G. “Vicki Rosen Named Interim Dean of Harvard School of Dental Medicine.” The Harvard Crimson, December 21, 2019.https://www.thecrimson.com/article/2019/12/21/rosen-hsdm-interim-dean/

Liberman, Emily. “HMS Opens Doors to Diversity.” Harvard Medical School News, October 2, 2009. https://hms.harvard.edu/news/hms-opens-doors-diversity-10-2-09.

“Louis W. Sullivan, MD.” The Office Of The President Emeritus. Accessed July, 26, 2020. https://www.pemsm.com/

MacQuarrie, Brian. “Graveston dedicated to the first Black female medical doctor in the US.” Boston Globe. July 17, 2020.
https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/07/17/metro/gravestone-dedicated-first-black-female-medical-doctor-us/

Manos, Nick. “David Jones Peck (ca. 1826-1855).” BlackPast, February 4, 2009. https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/peck-dr-david-jones-c-1826/.

“Medical Committee for Human Rights.” SNCC Digital Gateway. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://snccdigital.org/inside-sncc/alliances-relationships/mchr/.

“Medical School Chooses Robert Satcher Jr. as Class Day Speaker.” The Harvard Gazette. May 7, 2020.   https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/newsplus/harvard-medical-school-announces-class-day-keynote-speaker/

“Medical School recognized for excellence in minority health.” The Harvard Gazette, September 26, 2002. http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2002/09/medical-school-recognized-for-excellence-in-minority-health/.

“Medicare’s Civil Rights Roots.” History News Network, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences. October 6, 2015. http://hnn.us/article/160829

“Meet Jessie Gideon Garnet, Boston’s First Black Woman Dentist;” City of Boston, Archives and Records Management. March 8, 2018.https://www.boston.gov/news/meet-jessie-gideon-garnet-bostons-first-black-woman-dentist

Morgan, Thomas M. “The Education and Medical Practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), First Black American to Hold a Medical Degree.” Journal of the National Medical Association, 95 no. 7 (July 2003): 603-614. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2594637/.

Morris, Karen. “The Founding of the National Medical Association.” Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library, 2007. https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/ymtdl/360.

“NASA Astronaut Dr. Robert L. Satcher Jr.” MIT Black History. 2010. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.blackhistory.mit.edu/archive/nasa-astronaut-dr-robert-l-satcher-jr-2010#:~:text=Robert%20%22Bobby%22%20Lee%20Satcher%2C,surgeon%20to%20travel%20into%20space.

Neal, Anthony W. “Boston’s black medical community thrived in the mid-19th century.” The Bay State Banner. April 11, 2012. https://www.baystatebanner.com/2012/04/11/bostons-black-medical-community-thrived-in-the-mid-19th-century/.

Neal, Antony W. “Dr. Jessie K. Garnett: The first black woman to practice dentistry in the Hub.” The Bay State Banner. May 19, 2016. https://www.baystatebanner.com/2016/05/19/dr-jessie-k-garnett-the-first-black-woman-to-practice-dentistry-in-the-hub/.

Neal, Anthony, “Defying the Odds: Dr. Thomas William Patrick and His Successful School of Pharmacy,” The Bay State Banner; September 13, 2017.https://www.baystatebanner.com/2017/09/13/defying-the-odds-dr-thomas-william-patrick-and-his-successful-school-of-pharmacy/

Nercessian, Nora. Against All Odds: The Legacy of Students of African Descent at Harvard Medical School before Affirmative Action, 1850-1968. Boston: Harvard Medical School, 2004.

"New Dean for School of Dental Medicine.” The Harvard Gazette, News & Announcements; Accessed May 18, 2020.https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/04/new-dean-for-harvard-school-of-dental-medicine/#:~:text=William%20V.,of%20Dental%20Medicine%20(HSDM).

“Norman Family.” West Virginia Archives & History. Accessed October 11, 2019. http://www.wvculture.org/history/gallery/normanfamily.html.

“Office of Recruitment & Multicultural Affairs.” Medical Education - Harvard Medical School. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://meded.hms.harvard.edu/office-recruitment-multicultural-affairs.

“Penn in the 18th Century: School of Medicine.” Penn University Archives & Records Center. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://archives.upenn.edu/exhibits/penn-history/18th-century/medical-school.

“Picotte Memorial Hospital.” National American Indian Heritage Month. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Accessed June 18, 2020.
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“Plessy v. Ferguson.” Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537.

“Portrait of Dr. Freeman Honors HSDM’s First African American Graduate.” HSDM News, April 24, 2019. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://hsdm.harvard.edu/news/portrait-dr-robert-freeman-honors-hsdm%E2%80%99s-first-african-american-graduate.

Powell, Alvin. “Legacy of Resolve: HMS scholarship honors the mission, principles of abolitionist Lewis Hayden.” The Harvard Gazette. February 23, 2015. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2015/02/legacy-of-resolve/.

Rafferty, Michael. “On Our Mind: The multidisciplinary study of the brain got its start at HMS more than fifty years ago.” Harvard Medicine. https://hms.harvard.edu/magazine/ethics/our-mind.

“Reconstruction Era: 1865-1877.” Howard University Library System. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.howard.edu/library/reference/guides/reconstructionera/.

“Regents of the University of California v. Bakke.” Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.oyez.org/cases/1979/76-811.

Reynolds, P. Preston. “Professional and Hospital Discrimination and US Court of Appeals Fourth Circuit 1956-1967.” American Journal of Public Health, 94 no. 5 (May 2004): 710-720. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448322/.

”Richard H. Carmona, MD, MPH< FACS.” Patient Safety Movement. Accessed July 26, 2020. https://patientsafetymovement.org/speaker/richard-h-carmona-md-mph-facs/

“Richard H Carmona MD, MPH, FACS.” The University of Arizona Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Accessed July 26, 2020. https://publichealth.arizona.edu/directory/richard-carmona

“Richard Carmona.” Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. July 24, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Carmona

Rickert, Jessica A. “American Indian Dentists Need Your Help to Help American Indian Pre-Dental Students.” Native News Online, February 1, 2016. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://nativenewsonline.net/currents/american-indian-dentists-need-your-help-to-help-american-indian-pre-dental-students/.

Rosenfeld, Louis. “Martin Robison Delany (1812-1885): Physician, Black Separatist, Explorer, Soldier.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 65, no. 7 (September 1989): 801–18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2695204.

Savitt, Todd. “Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical Schools.” Journal of the National Medical Association, 98 no. 9 (September 2006): 1415-1424. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2569717/.

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Schumann, John Henning. “A Bygone Era: When Bipartisanship Led to Health Care Transformation.” NPR. October 2, 2016. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/10/02/495775518/a-bygone-era-when-bipartisanship-led-to-health-care-transformation.

“Stark & Subtle Divisions: A Collaborative History of Segregation in Boston". www.bosdesca.omeka.net.

Stern, Steve. “Desegregation: The Hidden Legacy of Medicare.” U.S. News and World Report, July 29, 2015.https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/07/30/desegregation-the-hidden-legacy-of-medicare

“Surgeon General’s Report on Oral Health in America.” National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Accessed October 11, 2019. https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/research/data-statistics/surgeon-general.

“Susan La Flesche Picotte.” National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. February 25, 2020. Accessed June 17, 2020.https://www.nps.gov/people/susan-la-flesche-picotte.htm

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Joycelyn Elders: American Physician and Government Official.” Britannica. 2020. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joycelyn-Elders

“University of Rwanda Graduates First Class of Dentists.” Harvard School of Dental Medicine, News. December 7, 2018.https://hsdm.harvard.edu/news/university-rwanda-graduates-first-class-dentists

Vaughn, Carson. “The Incredible Legacy of Susan La Flesche, the First Native American to Earn a Medical Degree.”SMITHSONIANMAG.COM. March 1, 2017. Accessed June 17, 2020.https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/incredible-legacy-susan-la-flesche-first-native-american-earn-medical-degree-180962332/

Versaci, Mary Beth. “First woman to serve as Chicago Dental Society president inspired others to follow dreams.” ADA News. American Dental Association, May 10, 2019. https://www.ada.org/en/publications/ada-news/2019-archive/may/1st-woman-to-serve-as-chicago-dental-society.

Wendler, Ronda. “Surgeon. Engineer. Astronaut: Orthopedic Oncologist Robert Satcher has always reached for the Stars.” Summer 2016: Reaching for the Stars. Accessed July 23, 2020. https://www.mdanderson.org/publications/conquest/surgeon-astronaut.h38-1590624.html

“Who We Are – Society of American Indian Dentists.” Society of American Indian Dentists. Accessed October 11, 2019.
http://www.thesaidonline.org/who-we-are.